Dental Research articles list

Knowledge, attitude, and practices towards covid-19: a cross-sectional study among nursing and midwifery students in jalingo, nigeria

ABSTRACT Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection rate and mortality among Nigerian health care workers appear to be on the increase. Aside from health workers, it has caused millions of infections and deaths worldwide. This study determined the level of knowledge, attitude, and practices of nursing and midwifery students towards COVID-19 in a North-Eastern Nigerian state. Methods: A total of 156 respondents were involved in this institutional-based cross-sectional study, conducted after the lockdown period. A total of 17 questions were used to assess the KAP with knowledge appraised with 12 questions, attitudes with 2 questions, and practices with 3 questions. Results: The majority of the students (53.80%) possessed a good level of knowledge regarding COVID-19, while 40.4% had fair knowledge regarding COVID-19 with only 5.80% having poor knowledge of COVID-19. The mean knowledge of COVID-19 in this study was 9.40±1.353 with an overall 78% correct answer rate. A vast majority of the respondent (82.7% and 98.1%) had strong confidence in Nigeria and believed that the pandemic will soon be over, respectively. Only a few avoided large gatherings of people (30.8%) with the vast majority reporting to have worn a mask when going out (84.6%) and washing their hands with running water and soap frequently as recommended (73.1%). In multiple logistic regression analyses, the COVID-19 knowledge score (OR: 0.39-0.40, 95%CI: 0.26 – 0.62, P<0.05) was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of negative preventive practices towards COVID-19. Conclusions: The participants in this study showed good knowledge, positive attitudes, and good practices toward COVID-19. There is still a need to strategize and implement periodic educational interventions and training on infection control practices among healthcare workers including students.

Hope Inegbenosun

Association between oral health literacy, gingival health and oral hygiene among dental patients

Objective: To determine the association between oral health literacy, oral hygiene and gingival health status. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. Data were collected through interviewer-administered questionnaires. Index used in this study for estimating oral health literacy levels was Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry- 30 (REALD-30). The participant’s oral hygiene status was assessed using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index while gingival health was assessed using the Gingival Index. Results: Two hundred and eight participants with 130 (62.5%) males and 78 (37.5%) females formed the population of the study and their mean age was 28.32 ± 10.5 years. The prevalence of low oral health literacy was 86 (41.3%). The oral hygiene status of most of the participants 100 (48.1) was fair. The prevalence of gingivitis was 58.2%. Oral health literacy had significant statistical negative correlation with age, oral hygiene and gingival health status. Oral health literacy consistently emerged as a predictor of oral hygiene and gingival health status. Conclusion: Majority of the participants with low oral health literacy had fair/poor oral hygiene status (p = 0.000, OR= 17.870, 95% CI = 7.320-43.627) and gingivitis (p = 0.000, OR= 7.054, 95% CI = 3.514-14.164).

Hope Inegbenosun

Covid-19 and its implications in dental care

COVID-19 was first reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province of China a few months ago (December 2019) and had since become a major challenging public health problem for not only China but also many countries around the world. It was on March 11, 2020, characterized by WHO as a pandemic. The pandemic so far has killed more than 526,465 people and infected more than 11,046,917 people around the world as of 05 July 2020. Nigeria currently has 28,167 confirmed COVID-19 cases with 11,462 (40%) discharged, 16,071 (57%) currently receiving treatment at designated facilities across the country and unfortunately 634 (3%) deaths as at the time of writing this manuscript. As far as the authors are aware, there are little or no work carried out on the implications of COVID-19 on dental practices in Nigeria. Recently, COVID-19 was identified in saliva of infected patients and so transmission via aerosols and splatter generated during dental procedures is sure. To limit exposure, there was a need to avoid scheduling patients except for emergency dental care during this outbreak. This limitation on activities of the dental sector has a very huge impact on the economy of the sector as it has already resulted in serious monetary implications for dental practices worldwide. While dental practices in the high-income countries are getting help from their respective Government, those in the middle and low-income countries like Nigeria have been left to wallow in bankruptcy without support. The authors highly recommend that the Government of these neglected countries, step up and support dental practices that are on the brink of closing down due to the low turnout of patients to their practice during this outbreak.

Hope Inegbenosun

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

Study of temperature variation in human peripheral region during wound healing process due to plastic surgery

In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.

Manisha Jain

Metapuf: a challenge response pair generator

Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.

Abhishek Kumar

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

Sumitra Nain

Dept Of Pharmacy,banasthali Vidyapith

Dr Prerna Soni

Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University Raipur Chhattisgarh

Dhivya R

Psgr Krishnammal College For Women

Dr Vipul Sharma

Gurukul Knagri University, Haridwar

Dr Narendar Bhojak

Gcrc, P.g. Department Of Chemistry Government Dungar College (three Times Consecutively ’a’grade By Naac) Bikaner 334001

Reet Kumar Reet

Mahatma Gandhi Central University Motihari Bihar

Nsikakabasi George

Kano State Ministry Of Health

Annette Veit

Austria

Sudipta Saha

Sri Sri University

Akarue, Blessing Okiemute

College Of Education, Warri

Souren Bhattacharya

University Of Technology , Jaipur, Rajasthan