The study of molluscan animals is called Malacology and the study of molluscan shell is called as conchology. The scaling of metabolic rates with body mass is one of the best known and most studied characteristics of aquatic animals. We studied here how body size is related to rate of oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and O: N ratio in Freshwater Bivalve Mollusc Lamellidens marginalis species in an attempt to know how body size specific changes affect their metabolism. The freshwater bivalve molluscs with specific body size i.e. small (76-79 mm in shell-length) and large (90-94 mm in shell-length) were chosen for experimental work from Bhima River at Siddhatek on April and May during summer. The adult bivalve molluscs with small body size reported high value in rate of oxygen consumption and O: N ratio but rate of ammonia excretion was low value in small body sized bivalves compared to large ones. The results are discussed in the flush of metabolic processes in fresh-water bivalve molluscs.
The scaling of metabolic rates with body mass is one of the best known and most studied characteristics of aquatic animals. We studied here how size is related to oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and O: N ratio in Freshwater Bivalve Mollusc Lamellidens marginalis species in an attempt to know how size specific changes affect their metabolism. The freshwater bivalve molluscs with specific size i.e. small (77 79 mm in shell length) and large (90 93 mm in shell length) were selected for experimental work from Bhima River at Siddhatek on December and January during winter. The adult bivalve molluscs with small size reported high value in oxygen consumption and O: N ratio but ammonia excretion was low value in small sized bivalves compared to large ones. The results are discussed in the glow of metabolic processes in fresh water bivalve molluscs.
Considering the site (habitat) specific variations in the metabolic activities in the freshwater bivalves, we reported here the changes in the rate of oxygen consumption, rate of ammonia excretion and O: N ratio in the freshwater bivalve mollusc, Lamellidens marginalis (Lamark) from lotic and lentic water habitats on April-May during summer season. The adult freshwater bivalves, Lamellidens marginalis (82-84 mm shell length) from lotic and lentic water near Jayakwadi dam on Godavari river was selected for determination of rate of oxygen consumption, rate of ammonia excretion and O: N ratio. The adult bivalves from lotic water habitat showed high rate of oxygen consumption and low rate of ammonia excretion. The O: N ratio showed higher values in bivalves collected from lotic water than lentic water during summer season. The results of study are discussed in the light of possible physiological processes in freshwater bivalve molluscs.
For banking employees around the globe, stress on the job can be a challenge; stress can be sometimes positive and sometimes negative. Positive stress leads to productivity and negative stress leads to loss for the organization. There is already a certain level of stress in Banking employees work life and then encounter even more stress arising from the work pressure that Banking employees face on the job. Many employees cannot cope with such rapid changes taking place in the jobs. Role conflict, Service for customer, contribution, rapid technological change, lack of customer response is the great transaction of stress for the banking workers. The aim of this research is to understand roots and outcomes of job stress on the employee performance in banking sector.
Purpose of this study is examining the cause of stress among selected private banking employees. Stratified sampling method was used to carry out the data collection. For this employee of various private banks were chosen. A questionnaire with 12 items with dichotomous (Yes-1, NO-2) were developed and tested for reliability and prior to the distribution of questionnaire. 253 respondents were selected from various private banks in Mysore district, Karnataka state India. The survey questionnaire was sent via email, requesting to complete it. The questionnaire includes 11 demographic information’s and statements to measure. Chi-Square analysis was carried out to examine the cause of stress among employee using SPSS21. We found that designations have significant influence on employee and The other factors of do not have any significant influence on employee. Therefore we concluded that in private banks demographic variable such as designation creates stress in all aspects. Future research should consider a larger sample from leading sectors where job natures are similar. Analysis should be more rigorous, where Amos could be used for analysis.
The daily water distillation of the single basin conventional solar still is limited. In the present work, experimental analysis of a parabolic disc type solar still and conventional solar still are investigated. The solar radiation is focused to the single point to produce higher basin temperature. The water is flown continuously inside the copper receiver to utilize the incident solar radiation. The hourly readings were taken to analyze the thermal performance of the parabolic disc type solar still and conventional solar still. The water collection of parabolic disc type solar still is increased about 40% over conventional solar still.
This study examined the spatial distribution pattern of public lower basic schools for the implementation of lower basic education in Rivers State. One research question guided the study. The descriptive survey design was used. The population for the study was the 942 public lower basic schools in Rivers State. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw the sample size of 289 schools. A handheld Global Positioning System receiver was the instrument used for the study. Nearest neighbour analysis was used to answer the research question. Findings revealed that the overall pattern of distribution of existing public lower basic schools in Rivers State is clustered. Specifically the distribution of schools in Degema and Akuku-Toru Local Government Areas is dispersed with Rn of 1.72 and 1.36 respectively. The pattern of distribution of Bonny, Opobo/Nkoro, Abua/Odual, Port Harcourt, Obio/Akpor and Ikwerre indicates a clustered pattern with Rn of 0.91, 0.83 0.84, 0.74, 0.72 and 0.24 respectively. The study therefore recommended among other things that the state governments should make policies that guide school mapping and ensure their strict compliance. Since school mapping is an integral aspect of micro-planning, every local government should be statutorily required to have a comprehensive school map of its area that should be updated at least every decade. The services of professional planners should be utilized by the Ministry of Education and should also ensure that modern mapping equipment are deployed for this very important exercise.
Conservation agricultural (CA) practices prove to be beneficial in terms of resource utilization and maintenance of soil health. Rice-Wheat cropping system (RWCS) is the majorcropping system in Indo-Gangetic plains of India. CA practices are becoming popular in this cropping system as sustainable agricultural management practices. Phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are important primary nutrients and are required for crop growth. A field experiment was conducted during the period of 2015-2017 at Taraori village of Karnal district in Haryanato study the effects of conservation agricultural practices on P and K availability as well as uptake in rice-wheat cropping system. The experiment comprised of four treatments i.e. Transplanted rice + Conventionally tilled wheat (T1), Direct seeded rice + Zero tilled wheat with residue retention (T2), Transplanted rice + Zero tilled wheat (T3) and Transplanted rice + Zero tilled wheat with residue retention (T4). Results showed that P uptake was highest in T4 treatment in wheat crop. P uptake in rice was highest in T4 treatment while direct seeded rice (T2) showed lowest P uptake. CA practices also increased K uptake in both the crops. Practicing zero tillage in wheat increased the availability of soil phosphorus as compared to conventionally tilled treatment with highest value (34 kg ha-1) recorded in T3 treatment. But direct seeded rice soil showed lower values of soil available P. Similar to phosphorus, available potassium of soil also increased in all treatments. Highestvalue (341.5 kg ha-1) of available K was recorded in T4 treatment while it was minimum (307.2 kg ha-1) in T1. Residue incorporation in soil led to more availabilityof K in T2 and T4 treatment. This study features the significance of conservation agricultural practices over conventional practices in terms of increasing the uptake and availability phosphorus and potassium in soil. Key words : Conservation agriculture,
Intensively cultivated rice-wheat cropping system of the Indo Gangetic plain (IGP) is a potential source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.Agriculture sector emits GHGs like methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The total amount of GHGs emitted by a product is known as its carbon footprint (CFP).Quantification of CFP of crops will help in identifying management practices to reduce CFP of crop production. Studies related to assessing of CFP of agricultural products are lacking. The present review paper was aimed to discuss about the studies done on GHG emission from rice-wheat cropping system of the Indo Gangetic plains. The paper elaborates on what is CFP, how to calculate CFP of rice-wheat cropping system with the help of different case studies. The paper provides insights about certain agricultural management practices which can help in reducing CFP of rice-wheat cropping system. Discussion from this paper signifies the importance of carbon footprint assessment in maintaining the sustainability of rice wheat cropping system.
How great would it be if you never forgot anything or never lost the ability to think and be creative? And just imagine how much more great it would be if your brain can be reconstructed so that it can stay young forever and be used to create wonders even after your death? It would be a great leap in the field of science if the brains of great minds like Steve Jobs or Albert Einstein can be recreated. That is exactly what the blue brain does. The blue brain project is an attempt to reconstruct the brain piece by piece and building a virtual brain in a supercomputer. It began in 2005 with an agreement between the EPFL and IBM, which supplied the Blue Gene/L supercomputer acquired by EPFL to build the virtual brain. The computing power needed is considerable. Each simulated neuron requires the equivalent of a laptop computer. A model of the whole brain would have billions. Supercomputing technology is rapidly approaching a level where simulating the whole brain becomes a concrete possibility. The main aim is to update the brain into a computer. As a first step, the project succeeded in simulating a rat cortical column. Efforts are now being made to simulate the human brain. In five years of work, Henry Mark ram’s team has perfected a facility that can create realistic models of one of the brains essential building blocks. This process is entirely data driven and essentially automatically executed on the supercomputer. This modeling will expand to all the areas of the brain and if successful, shed light on the relationships between genetic, molecular and cognitive functions of the brain. These models will be basic building blocks for larger scale models leading towards a complete virtual brain.
Recently, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been deployed for a wide variety of applications, including military sensing and tracking, patient status monitoring, traffic flow monitoring, where sensory devices often move between different locations. Securing data and communications requires suitable encryption key protocols. In this paper, we propose a certificateless-effective key management (CL-EKM) protocol for secure communication in dynamic WSNs characterized by node mobility. The CL-EKM supports efficient key updates when a node leaves or joins a cluster and ensures forward and backward key secrecy. The protocol also supports efficient key revocation for compromised nodes and minimizes the impact of a node compromise on the security of other communication links. A security analysis of our scheme shows that our protocol is effective in defending against various attacks.We implement CL-EKM in Contiki OS and simulate it using Cooja simulator to assess its time, energy, communication, and memory performance.
Keeping an in depth tab of recent folks or folks on chair with bound health conditions for his or her health and safety is a very important task. With maturity, weak bones and weakness because of alternative health connected problems could lead to will increase risk of falling. A supervisor might not continually be on the market with them and if correct assistance is not provided at the correct time it should cause larger health considerations which will need extra resources for treatment. For this purpose we've projected a wise IOT Fall Detection System exploitation acceptable sensors that square measure integrated facilitate|to assist} report these incidents to assist avail help at the correct time to forestall additional injury to health. The same system uses sensors like associate degree measuring system to live the speed of the person, a rotating mechanism to live the person’s orientation so as to live their stability, a load sensing element once the system is employed by an individual employing a chair to live their weight, a Wi-Fi module and a microcontroller that sends the general readings to alert the involvedthose that shall give with the right suggests that to assist the person in want. The microcontroller receives all the info from the sensors and perpetually transmits and monitors the acceleration and also the orientation of the person. Any fast abrupt modification within the system which will result from a fall is taken into account as a ‘fall’ and is reported . a serious concern would be that not all fast movement may end up from a fall and be thought of as a matter of concern. To avoid this warning a napbutton is provided to snooze the system. This button will be ironed before a definite time say 15-30 seconds to prevent the system from causation the alert, thus avoiding any confusion and panic. this method will be mounted to the person’s chair or will be created compact to be created into a wearable device which will be worn on the hand.
For given condition of (temperature and humidity) of suction air, the delivery air condition depends on the system parameters (depth, radius, length and air mass flow rate), thermo physical properties of the surrounding earth (thermal conductivity and specific thermal capacity) and earth surface environment (ambient temperature, ambient humidity and solar irradiance)[1,3].Sensitivity analysis of system performance is essential for understanding the relative importance of different parameters of design of a optimum system [2,5]. For the steady state periodic input air condition and the performance of the system can be measured in terms of heating potential during the winter period and cooling potential during the summer period. Sensitivity of the system performance parameters (heating potential in winter and cooling potential in summer) to the changes in system parameters or thermo physical properties of the surrounding earth has been analysed and the result is present is in this paper.
The mobile adhoc network is a group of mobile nodes without having the fixed infrastructure. Due to the infrastructure less network and distributed nature, make mobile adhoc network susceptible to malicious attackers. So, we use an intrusion detection system called Enhanced Adaptive ACKnowledgement (EAACK) especially for mobile adhoc networks. Based on the digital signature algorithm (DSA) and RSA the EAACK is designed. To enhance the strength of the security in the mobile adhoc networks, we introduce an innovative approach called Hybrid Security Protocol that provides integrity, confidentiality and authentication. This Hybrid Security Protocol consists of Cryptography based on Elliptic curve, Dual-RSA algorithm and Message Digest MD5. Encryption is achieved by using Elliptic Curve Cryptography, Dual-RSA algorithm for authentication and MD-5 for integrity. By using a combination of both symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic techniques, we achieve better security with integrity.
A mobile adhoc network is a Self-configuring network of mobile routers connected by wireless links. In the mobile adhoc network, each and every device moves independently in any direction so that there are frequent changes in the links. It is essential to learn the position of the neighbors because there is increase in location-aware services. So, there is a chance that the malicious nodes are easily abused the process. The significant problem in mobile networks is correctness of node locations and also it is primarily challenging in the presence of adversaries. So, the neighbor position verification protocol is used to a fully distributed, a lightweight NPV procedure which allows each node to obtain the locations advertised by its neighbors and asses their truthfulness. Further to extend neighbor position verification protocols in the proactive model that need to each node constantly verify the position of its neighbors. So, we introduce a technique called secure link state updating which provides secure proactive topology discovery that is multiply useful for the network operation. This technique is vigorous against individual attackers, it is capable to adjust its capacity between local and network-wide topology discovery, and also operating in networks of frequently changing topology and membership nodes. Experimental results show that the proposed system is high efficiency in terms of security when compared to the existing system.
The rapid growth of wireless devices introduces a diverse range of applications and requires intelligent hardware platforms that integrate computing, sensing, and wireless connectivity in a compact systemon- chip (SoC). This paper presents a low-power, high-performance SoC platform that supports dynamic power management and secure communication. The SoC platform consists of 16-/32-bit programmable ARM9 cores, a power management unit with multiple low-power modes, analog and digital peripherals, and security engines. A complete tool-chain with an automatic platform generator has also been developed to ease and accelerate the application development. Fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS technology, an implementation of the proposed platform occupies an area of 1.0 × 1.7 mm2.
Abstract should be times new roman with 9 fount single spacing.The main focused of Watermarking is developing and i Image Recognition is the idea of simulating the visual functions of human brain which uses human eyes as the source of input to recognize and make decisions on the objects it sees. This became possible with the advent of cameras and advanced processing technologies. The idea is to copy the features exactly present in the pattern, that the brain uses to recognize images . The image in the real world are captured and pre-processed in the desired format and stored in large chunks of memories. This is to provide the recognition program to compare the new image taken with the ones that has been pre-processed and stored. The comparison is done at the pixel level of the image which is expressed in a matrix form. The image is compared with the data set stored at pixel level and the decisions are made recognizing the image. This picture recognition method becomes a smarter solution with the availability of more number of data sets. With large number of trail and errors the system will get familiar and intelligent providing best solution for computer and robot vision technologies.
A P2P network can be an ad hoc connection- a couple of computers connected via a Universal Serial Bus to transfer files. And these networks are vulnerable to peers. The traditional security techniques are insufficient for P2P networks as they are insecure by their very nature. There’s no centralized server controlling access to shared resources in a P2P network which have unique challenges including identity management of the peers, secure reputation data management, Sybil attacks, and above all, availability of reputation data. The future actions are predicted where peers are encapsulated in its digital reputation, based on the past behaviour of the peer.Thus a peer’s reputation allows it to cooperate and prevent from malicious activities. The cryptographic protocol is coupled with selfcertification and cryptographic mechanisms for identity management and countering Sybil attack.
The development of smart phone technology has lead to denigrate of the phone prepared with many sophisticated features such as sensors. Camera is one of the most extensively used sensors. Although the photographs capture by camera can be shared via Multimedia Message Service (MMS) which allows broadcast of files like photographs, audio and video. A major problem of MMS is, it doesn’t provide adequate safety mechanism. Because of this, the data of the people who wants to conceal confidential information from state-controlled systems that can be easily monitored. Video Steganography is a technique to hide any type of files in any extension into a Video file. The idea proposed in this paper is to embed any kind of data in another file, which is called carrier file. The carrier file must be image video file. Steganography is the art of hiding messages inside other messages such that the very existence of the message is unknown to third party. In this paper, a steganography-based android mobile application that can insert the confidential information into an image, then into a video that can be send it to receiver. Finally we can extract the confidential information from the image in the receiver side.
Identity-based encryption (IBE) is a public key cryptosystem and eliminates the demands of public key infrastructure (PKI) and certificate administration in conventional public key settings. Because of the absence of PKI, the revocation drawback could be a crucial issue in IBE settings. Many rescindable IBE schemes are planned relating to this issue. Quite recently, by embedding associate outsourcing computation technique into IBE, Li et al. planned a rescindable IBE theme with a key-update cloud service supplier (KU-CSP). However, their theme has 2 shortcomings. One is that the computation and communication prices are above previous rescindable IBE schemes. The opposite disadvantage is lack of measurability within the sense that the KU-CSP should keep a secret worth for every user. Within the article, we have a tendency to propose a replacement rescindable IBE theme with a cloud revocation authority (CRA) to resolve the 2 shortcomings, namely, the performance is significantly improved and the CRA holds only a system secret for all the users. For security analysis, we demonstrate that the proposed scheme is semantically secure under the Decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman (DBDH) assumption. Finally, we have a tendency to extend the planned rescindable IBE theme to gift a CRA-aided authentication theme with period-limited privileges for managing an outsized range of varied cloud services.