The purpose of this study is to explore the belief of teacher educators about the relationship between teaching and research. Keeping in view the role of the teacher educators, a survey was done. The beliefs of teacher educators were explored with the help of an opinionaire. The collected data were analyzed through qualitative method of analysis. It was found that the secondary teacher educators were positive about the need of research with a little dilemma between teaching and research.
Overall, disability refers to a physical or mental state that impairs an individual's ability to function in daily life. It suffices to say that disability is a medical-social issue that affects both the family and the nation. In a country like India, where girl children are frequently stigmatized as a burden on society, the condition of girl children with special needs is frequently subject to carelessness, lack of compassion, and illiteracy. Though the situation has improved slightly since the introduction of inclusive education, the situation is critical for tribal girl students with special needs. In a fragile socioeconomic environment, tribal girls are already vulnerable to high dropout rates, early marriage, and an ignorant attitude from family members, but the situation is pitiful for tribal girls with special needs. The tribal girl students with special needs suffer quadruple discrimination of being female, being disabled, being ST, and being socio-economically backward. Here, intervention through artificial intelligence (AI) and AI-assisted devices can be critical in overcoming the barriers encountered by tribal girl students with special needs in the process of inclusion and development
Hydatid disease or hydatidosis is a worldwide zoonosis disease caused by the tapeworm of Echinococcus granulosus and still widely endemic in Tunisia especially in rural areas where the sheep-dog cycle is dominant. It is an important public health problem in the pediatric age group causing significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case of primary hydatid cyst of the small intestine in a child and we want to highlight the difficulty that we meet in the diagnosis despite the contribution of imaging.
The study examined the impact of school enrolment growth on the carrying capacity of universities in Imo State, Nigeria. Three research questions and hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted the descriptive survey design with a population of 2,929 academic staff in the two public universities in Imo State. The sample size was 352 representing 12% of the population drawn using stratified random sampling technique. An instrument titled ‘School Enrolment Growth and Carrying Capacity of Universities Questionnaire (SEGCCUQ)’, structured on the 4 point scale, validated by experts and with reliability index of 0.84 was used for data generation. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. Among others, the study revealed that factors such as natural increase of population, influx of migrants, enforcement of compulsory education, raising of school-leaving age, increased enrolment of girls and so on influence school enrolment growth that bear on the carrying capacity of universities. It was recommended among others that the factors should help the governments and institutions to forecast enrollment more effectively likewise permit them to make adjustments to meet current or future enrolment.
This study investigated workforce diversity and secondary school administration in Rivers state. The design for the study was the descriptive survey. Two research questions and two hypotheses were raised to guide the study. Mean and standard deviation statistics were used to answer the research questions while the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using z-test statistics. A sample size of 667 respondents, representing 90% of the entire population of 741 principals and vice principals from all the 247 pubic senior secondary schools in Rivers state was drawn using the stratified random sampling technique. A researcher-designed instrument titled Workforce Diversity Management Questionnaire (WOFDIMQ) was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by experts in the area of measurement and evaluation at the University of Port Harcourt. The reliability index determined for the instrument using Cronbach Alpha was 0.82. The findings of the study revealed that secondary school administrators do have some administrative strategies put in place for the management of the diversities among teachers. It was therefore recommended among others, that the government should make some specific provisions that will guide school administrators in the management of diversities among teachers. Also, school administrators should develop operational plans and strategies that are based on their specific peculiarities that will help maximize the advantages of diversities among teachers, while at the same time, minimize the inherent disadvantages.
Strain improvement studies were conducted for the production of L-asparaginase from a marine fungus Beauveriabassiana SS18/14 by employing physical and chemical mutagens, in a systemic manner to obtain mutants that have higher L-asparaginase production. The wild strain produced 6.32 IU/mL of L-asparaginase activity while the UV mutant UVF-4 yielded 8.34 IU/mL and nitrous acid mutant UVF4-N-2 exhibited 10.44 IU/mL enzyme activity. The overall strain improvement programme increased L-asparaginase activity 1.65 times with respect to the parent wild strain.
Therapeutic nucleic acids demand specificity and accuracy in design as well as delivery strategies used in replacement or silencing of the target gene. Gene therapy is believed to be the therapy in which the root cause of the diseases can be treated at the molecular level. Generally gene therapy helps in the identification of the origin of the disorder instead of using drugs to diminish or control the symptoms. The application of nucleic acids to treat and control diseases is known as “gene therapy.” Gene therapy consists on the substitution or addition of a functional gene into the nucleus of a living cell, in order to treat a disease or repair a dysfunction, caused by this gene failure. This therapy is used to correct defective genes, which are responsible for genetic diseases. Thus, gene therapy can be used to prevent, treat or regulate hereditary or acquired disorders, by the production of therapeutic proteins. The gene therapy is mediated by the use of viral and non-viral vectors to transport foreign genes into somatic cells to restorative defective genes. This review focuses on viral vectors in detail.
Regression modeling analyses the relationship between two or more variables and can be used to predict the response variable from one or more independent variables. The present study uses linear regression analysis to evaluate the growth in the two fish species of genus Oreochromis, Nile tilapia and Jipe tilapia, under aquaculture conditions. The models were fitted using a collection of functions in the R-software library. The final models were selected using the goodness of fit criteria based on the coefficient of differentiation, the model p- values and Akaike information criteria. The significance of the linear relationship between predictor variables and the mean response was tested by comparing the computed standardized parameter estimates, whereas the confidence intervals were constructed to assess the uncertainty of predicting the response variable and determine outliers in the model. Generally, both species exhibited good condition during growth and all the measured water quality variables significantly afffected growth (p<0.05). However, only temperature and dissolved oxygen produced the most important linear relationship with fish weight. The study recommends that data from a controlled experiment should be used the determine the interactions between the two growth variables.
A major hallmark of Parkinson's disease is loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The pathophysiological mechanisms causing this relatively selective neurodegeneration are poorly understood, and thus experimental systems allowing to study dopaminergic neuron dysfunction are needed. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) differentiated toward a dopaminergic neuronal phenotype offer a valuable source to generate human dopaminergic neurons. However, currently available protocols result in a highly variable yield of dopaminergic neurons depending on the source of hiPSCs. We have now developed a protocol based on HBA promoter-driven transient expression of transcription factors by means of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, that allowed to generate very consistent numbers of dopaminergic neurons from four different human iPSC lines. We also demonstrate that AAV vectors expressing reporter genes from a neuron-specific hSyn1 promoter can serve as surrogate markers for maturation of hiPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons. Dopaminergic neurons differentiated by transcription factor expression showed aggravated neurodegeneration through α-synuclein overexpression, but were not sensitive to γ-synuclein overexpression, suggesting that these neurons are well suited to study neurodegeneration in the context of Parkinson’s disease.
The main theme of this paper is to implement the mobility model in the Cooja simulator and to investigate the impact of mobility on the performance of Routing Protocol over Low power Lossy networks (RPL) in the IoT environment. In the real world, mobility occurs frequently. Therefore in this paper, a frequently used mobility model - Random Way Point (RWP) is used for analysis. RWP can be readily applied to many existing applications. By default, the Cooja simulator does not support mobility models. For this, the Bonn Motion is introduced into Cooja as a plugin. As IoT deals with the resource-constrained environment, a comparison is done between the static environment and the mobile environment in terms of power consumption. As expected, the results indicate that mobility affects the RPL in terms of Power Consumption
Abstract Abundant solar energy is freely available almost round the year in India. As per the current scenario of global warming and climatic change, solar energy is the cleanest source in nature. Concentrated solar power (CSP)has hardly contributed to the overall installed solar power capacity in the country. CSP technologies are Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC), Linear Fresnel Reflector (LFR), Paraboloid Dish and Solar Power Tower. This paper presents a review of CSP in solar parabolic dish concentrator to understand thermal aspect like thermal efficiency, optical efficiency, useful heat gain, heat losses, solar irradiation, etc. for various applications and current development. The current scenario of global CSP is discussed to meet the future challenges and need of the society.
The ability of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) for effective binding to multiple target microbes has drawn lots of attention as an alternative to antibodies for detecting whole bacteria. We investigated pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) detection by applying a microfluidic based biosensing device embedded with AMP-labeled beads. According to a new channel design, our device is reusable by the repeated operation of detection and regeneration modes, and the binding rate is more enhanced due to even distribution of the bacterial suspension inside the chamber by implementing influx side channels. We observed higher binding affinity of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 for AMP-labeled beads than nonpathogenic E. coli DH5α, and the fluorescence intensity of pathogenic E. coli was about 3.4 times higher than the nonpathogenic one. The flow rate of bacterial suspension should be applied above a certain level for stronger binding and rapid detection by attaining a saturation level of detection within a short time of less than 20 min. A possible improvement in the limit of detection in the level of 10 cells per mL for E. coli O157:H7 implies that the AMP-labeled beads have high potential for the sensitive detection of pathogenic E. coli at an appropriate flow rate.
Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) consist of heterogeneous subpopulations with different multipotent properties: small and large cells with high and low multipotency, respectively. Accordingly, sorting out a target subpopulation from the others is very important to increase the effectiveness of cell-based therapy. We performed flow-based sorting of hMSCs by using optimally designed microfluidic chips based on the hydrodynamic filtration (HDF) principle. The chip was designed with the parameters rigorously determined by the complete analysis of laminar flow for flow fraction and complicated networks of main and multi-branched channels for hMSCs sorting into three subpopulations: small (<25>40 μm) cells. By focusing with a proper ratio between main and side flows, cells migrate toward the sidewall due to a virtual boundary of fluid layers and enter the branch channels. This opens the possibility of sorting stem cells rapidly without damage. Over 86% recovery was achieved for each population of cells with complete purity in small cells, but the sorting efficiency of cells is slightly lower than that of rigid model particles, due to the effect of cell deformation. Finally, we confirmed that our method could successfully fractionate the three subpopulations of hMSCs by analyzing the surface marker expressions of cells from each outlet.
As one of the flow-based passive sorting, the hydrodynamic filtration using a microfluidic-chip has shown to effectively separate into different sizes of subpopulations from cell or particle suspensions. Its model framework involving two-phase Newtonian or generalized Newtonian fluid (GNF) was developed, by performing the complete analysis of laminar flow and complicated networks of main and multiple branch channels. To predict rigorously what occurs in flow fields, we estimated pressure drop, velocity profile, and the ratio of the flow fraction at each branch point, in which the analytical model was validated with numerical flow simulations. As a model fluid of the GNF, polysaccharide solution based on Carreau type was examined. The objective parameters aiming practical channel design include the number of the branches and the length of narrow section of each branch for arbitrary conditions. The flow fraction and the number of branches are distinctly affected by the viscosity ratio between feed and side flows. As the side flow becomes more viscous, the flow fraction increases but the number of branches decreases, which enables a compact chip designed with fewer branches being operated under the same throughput. Hence, our rational design analysis indicates the significance of constitutive properties of each stream.
2-Azetidinone shows biological activities like anti-bacterial, anti-microbial activity, anti-tubercular activity, and anti-cancer activity. 2-azetdinone derivatives were synthesized by simple procedures. The first step is synthesis of benzohydrazide through nucleophilic substitution reaction between methyl benzoate and hydrazine hydrate. The above formed compound is then treated with substituted aromatic aldehydes in the presence of catalytic amount of concentrated hydrochloric acid with stirring for one hour to give benzohydrazone which results in the formation of Schiff bases.Schiff bases undergone cyclisation in the presence of chloroacetylchloride and diethylenediamine by using ethanol as a solvent upon stirring for 4 hour’s yielded 2-azetidinone derivatives. The in-silico anti-leukemic activity was determined by using the computational tools i.e. “PASS Online”, “AutoDock4.2” and “ADMET” properties by online software’s. Among these six derivatives compounds (AZT-6) was shown more activity when compared with the other five compounds.
Identifying the targets for improving antimicrobial prescription and development of antimicrobial stewardship interventions can better serve to combat the situation of antimicrobial resistance. The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial use at tertiary care teaching hospital with both acute and long-term care patients. A periodical point prevalence survey was done in a tertiary care hospital of South India during 2019 using manual and webbased GLOBAL-PPS tool. Of 945 patients eligible for the study, 645 (69.5 %) received at least one antibiotic, with highest rates in the adult surgical ward and pediatrics. Of 645 therapeutic antibiotic prescriptions, 58.6% prescriptions have an infectious indication of them, 62.6% are community-acquired infections. Third-generation cephalosporins were the most prescribed antibiotics. The prevalence of antibiotic use is very high, and our study evidence that the country needs a robust antimicrobial stewardship intervention program.
Abstract This paper evaluates the Ethiopian VAT tax type based on ten good tax principles that are: Equity and Fairness, Certainty, Convenience of payment, Economy in collection, Simplicity, Neutrality, Economic Growth & Efficiency, Transparency & Visibility, Minimum tax Gap, Appropriate Government revenue. The findings of this evaluation revealed VAT which six principles are under positive effect in Ethiopia meets of six Conon of the good tax system. Those are: Certainty for taxpayers, Convenience at the time of payment, neutrality, economic growth and efficiency, transparency and visibility, appropriate government revenue. Finally, the author suggests recommendation that could be used by the government in general and tax authorities in particularly in the preparation of future tax proposal reform and issuance of any directive, proclamation, rule, and procedure which is going to implemented need to encapsulate this Canon as Guiding route to improve service delivery and alleviating problem emanated from shortcoming from the administration.
Introduction: The prevalence of oral hygiene behaviors (OHB) is very low among school children in Ethiopia. However, the determinants of student's readiness/intention to perform those behaviors have been remained unstudied. Objective: This study aimed to identify the determinants of oral hygiene behavioral intention (OHBI) among preparatory school students based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Methods and materials: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 393 students. A 98-item self-administered questionnaire was used to evaluate oral hygiene knowledge (OHK), oral hygiene behavior (OHB), and OHBI based on TPB variables [attitude (ATT), subjective norms (SN) and perceived behavioral control (PBC)]. Descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling analysis (SEM) were employed to confirm relationships and associations among study variables. A p-value of less than 0.05 and a 95% confidence interval were used to declare statistical significance. Results: A total of 393 students were participated with a response rate of 97.5%. The mean age of the participants (54% females) was 18 (± 1.3) with an age range of 16 to 24. The TPB model was well fitted to the data and explained 66% of the variance in intention. ATT (β = 0.38; 95% CI, (0.21, 0.64)), SN (β = 0.33; 95% CI, (0.05, 0.83)) and PBC (β = 0.29; 95% CI, (0.13, 0.64)) were significant predictors of OHBI, where ATT was the strongest predictor of OHBI. Conclusion: The TPB model explained a large variance in the intention of students to improve their OHB. All TPB variables were significantly and positively linked to stronger intent, as the theory suggests. Furthermore, these results suggest that the model could provide a framework for oral hygiene promotion interventions in the study area. Indeed, these interventions should focus on changing the attitudes of students towards OHB, creation of positive social pressure, and enabling students to control OHB barriers.
The purpose of this study is to explore the impacts of foreign cartoons programs on the social behavior and attitude of Pakistani Children. It is forecasting different cartoon programs 24/7; hence, children spend most of their leisure in front of the television. All these cartoon characters affect the social life and psyche of the children and induce positive and negative mannerism in their daily lifestyles. It has found that one of the most disturbing factor is that the ferocity in children today is increasing rapidly due to following their favorite violent cartoon characters which are even different from their culture and societal norms. The issue is violence is what they see in every cartoon program in one or the other way. Their Guardians are unaware that these cartoons they let their children watch are destroying their parenting as negative forces are attacking the innocent minds of this generation. The study gives the insight of why and what is happening with non-parametric statistics studied and used for thorough analysis. The behavioral outcome of the kids like, imitating their preferred animation character, utilizing various dialects, watching the TV as opposed to deciding on outdoor games and being difficult about getting precisely the same outfits and embellishments as their adored character. This contextual analysis features the disturbing circumstance that guardians are uninformed of. There is something other than mimicking the particular character. The only traits of watching these foreign cartoon characters is that it might damage their own customs and they wildly become to believe these characters as their role models.
Parkinson’s disease, first described by James Parkinson in 1817, is a neurodegenerative ailment resulting from the damage of nerve cells in the brain. It is a chronic, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder with an estimated prevalence of 31 to 328 per 100,000 people worldwide. It is estimated that more than 1 percent of the population over age 65 are afflicted with Parkinson’s disease; incidence and prevalence increase with age. There are numerous unanswered questions regarding the diagnosis and management of Parkinson’s disease. Worsening mobility, causing problems with activities of daily living, pain and communication problems due to rigidity of facial muscles, are the main reasons of their decreasing quality of life. This study is focused on the role of psychological variables, which could be associated with quality of life in PD patients. After their identification a discussion about opportunities of improvement patient’s quality of life can be opened. Current drug therapies for human PD with Levodopa or various dopamine receptor agonists offer symptomatic relief and appear to have little effect on the neurodegenerative process. More than 50% of patients with PD treated over 5 years with Levodopa will develop complications such as motor fluctuations and dyskinesia’s. In this scenario, slowing the progression of PD through neuroprotective or restorative therapy is a major focus of research. From a pharmacologic standpoint, current strategies involve interrupting the cascade of biochemical events that leads to death of dopaminergic cells. The significance of many indigenous medicinal plants and their phytoconstitutents in the management of Parkinsonism with minimal side effect profile arise in this context