Medicine articles list

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

Study of temperature variation in human peripheral region during wound healing process due to plastic surgery

In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.

Manisha Jain

Obsessive compulsive disorder symptom exacerbation during covid-19 related lockdown managed with homoeopathy: a case report

Background: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most personally distressing, and disabling psychiatric condition. COVID 19 pandemic and country wide lockdown are likely to exacerbate the symptoms in diagnosed cases of OCD. Homoeopathy, an established system of medicine with potential relevance to mental health issues has a sparse literature in management of OCD. Objectives: The primary purpose of this case report is to point out the usefulness of Individualized homoeopathic medicine in treatment of OCD. The secondary purpose is to highlight the utility of similimum in the management of exacerbation of psychiatric conditions due to stressful life situations. Methods: A case of OCD reported in Psychiatry out Patient Unit treated by Classical Homoeopathy is presented in this case report. The case was assessed at baseline and follow up visits with Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Results: Baseline Y-BOCS score of 24 (Severe OCD) turned gradually to subclinical range of seven within 6 months. Patient had excellent relief for next six months and was functionally well. A comparatively milder exacerbation of symptoms (Y-BOCS-17) during lockdown could be managed effectively with the repetition of similimum resulting in subclinical score of five quickly within a month. Conclusion: Homoeopathic medicine is useful in the management of OCD and also symptom exacerbation due to stressful life events like lockdown.

Dr Deepthi Gilla

A review on prevention of diseases through homoeopathy

Homoeopathy is one of the latest systems of medicine discovered at the latter part of 18th century, first rose to prominence in the 19th century due to its success in treating epidemics and is currently second largely utilized system of medicine globally. Prophylaxis through Homoeopathy has been strongly promulgated by stalwarts and popular among the general public in the recent times, but still controversy revolves around it. Aim of the study is to review the available literature for analyzing the usefulness of Homoeopathy in prophylaxis of human, animal as well as plant diseases. A comprehensive search has been made in electronic database aimed to target the available literature of various levels of evidence. Examples are summarized under different areas of applicability of homeopathic medicine as prophylactic. Currently there is convincing evidence to support effectiveness of Homoeopathy in prophylaxis, though sparse. More rigorous research studies are warranted to enlarge the horizon of its application.

Dr Deepthi Gilla

The effect of lockdown due to covid-19 on mentally ill patients and their caregivers: a cross sectional study

Background: Pandemics are known to cause poor mental well-being and an increased risk of mental disorders. The foremost concern emerging from different aspects of COVID-19 is its impact on mental health. There were many surveys conducted on the general population related to the effect of COVID-19 and few studies on its psychological impact but there is sparse literature on how the containment measures affected the psychiatric patients. Objective of the study was to investigate whether the COVID-19 related lockdown affected the subjective mood and behavior of psychiatric patients and their caregivers. The secondary purpose is to assess the difficulties encountered in procuring medicines and the effect of non-availability of homoeopathic medicines if any. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on mentally ill patients and their care-givers in the Outpatient Department of Psychiatry in National Homoeopathy Research Institute in Mental Health (NHRIMH), Kottayam. Respondents were evaluated with a specially framed questionnaire containing 22 questions to assess the effect of lockdown on psychiatric patients and their caregivers, who attended the OPD after the COVID-19 related lockdown. The data generated through the study are analysed and presented in this article. Results: Out of the total 548 participants (M-65.9%, F-34.1%) who responded to the survey, 290 (53%) cases expressed that they were distressed to be under lockdown. 26.5% of the clients reported worsening of mental health conditions during lockdown compared to pre-lockdown. 54.2% of the patients found difficulty in procuring homoeopathic medicines during Lockdown. Conclusions: Authorities should consider the ways of limiting the effects of confinement on mentally ill patients and their caregivers by developing strategies to mitigate the adverse consequence of the pandemic.

Dr Deepthi Gilla

An overview of research study designs

The choice of the study design is a major determinant of scientific quality and clinical value of a research study. To select an appropriate study design is a perplex task for novice as well as veterans in research. AYUSH systems of medicines have evidence database showing the effectiveness in a wide range of clinical conditions, yet improving the quality of trials by well- designed studies is indispensable to demonstrate widespread utility on more scientific grounds. This article describes the structured classification of research designs done on the basis of a selective literature search concerning medical research. The study design and type that can best answer the particular research question at hand must be determined not only on a scientific basis, but also in view of the available resources, ethical issues and practical feasibility of study.

Dr Deepthi Gilla

Metapuf: a challenge response pair generator

Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.

Abhishek Kumar

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

1. critical study of guggulu kalpana with special reference of bhaishajya ratnavali

Bhaishajya kalpana is an art and science of preparing and dispencing medicine. Guggulu is a Niryasa (oily latex) achieved from small tree called Indian bedellium. Botanical name is commiphora mukul. Guggulu is an amorphous, translucent, solid adhesive, oleo-gum resin is produced by the process of gummosis from its plant. Many other Ayurvedic classics have mentioned various formulations of Guggulu for the treatment of various ailments. Bhashajya ratnawali followed various kalpana use for formuations. Guggulu kalpana is secondary formulations of bhaishajya kalpana. . Guggulu is one among the best binding agents and its used as single or compound drug in the form of pills, Formulations which contains Guggulu as main ingredient, they can be called as Guggulu kalpana. Here in Bhaishajya Ratnawali, Guggulu is used in yoga for both purposes, as a base and as well as medicament also.In bhaishajya Ratnavali Guggulu when modified into different formulations. It can also be used in many diseases along with different combinations of drugs with their anupana, Guggulu kalpana beneficial in treating many diseases. The Guggulu Kalpana is indicated in almost all the strotovikaras and also a number of research works have been proved the wide range of action of Guggulu .

Suri abhiram

1. critical study of guggulu kalpana with special reference of bhaishajya ratnavali

Bhaishajya kalpana is an art and science of preparing and dispencing medicine. Guggulu is a Niryasa (oily latex) achieved from small tree called Indian bedellium. Botanical name is commiphora mukul. Guggulu is an amorphous, translucent, solid adhesive, oleo-gum resin is produced by the process of gummosis from its plant. Many other Ayurvedic classics have mentioned various formulations of Guggulu for the treatment of various ailments. Bhashajya ratnawali followed various kalpana use for formuations. Guggulu kalpana is secondary formulations of bhaishajya kalpana. . Guggulu is one among the best binding agents and its used as single or compound drug in the form of pills, Formulations which contains Guggulu as main ingredient, they can be called as Guggulu kalpana. Here in Bhaishajya Ratnawali, Guggulu is used in yoga for both purposes, as a base and as well as medicament also.In bhaishajya Ratnavali Guggulu when modified into different formulations. It can also be used in many diseases along with different combinations of drugs with their anupana, Guggulu kalpana beneficial in treating many diseases. The Guggulu Kalpana is indicated in almost all the strotovikaras and also a number of research works have been proved the wide range of action of Guggulu .

Suri abhiram

Toxicity assessment of mucuna pruriens linn seeds

Plants have been used as medicine for the treatment of diseases for thousands of years. These herbal remedies, although natural, can cause some serious damaging effects on the vital organs of the body due to inadequacy in standardization and safety regulations. Mucuna pruriens Linn. belongs to the family Fabaceae and is used traditionally in various ailments. The present study reports the acute systematic toxicity and topical toxicity of methanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens (seeds) on albino mice and rabbits respectively. The test solution was injected intravenously into the tail as 1ml/20gm of the mice body weight. The observation was made immediately and after 1/2, 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72hours of drug administration. Mice showed normal activity till 72hours. The intracutaneous test is designed to evaluate local responses to the extracts of materials under test following intracutaneous injection into rabbits. The toxicological investigations of Mucuna pruriens with particular reference to intracutaneous toxicity in experimental animals displayed that it showed slight edema.

Dr. Salman Ahmed

Anti-emetic activity of some leguminous plants

Crude methanol extracts of the leaves of Adenanthera pavonina L., Peltoforum roxburghii L, Prosopis cineraria L., and Prosopis juliflora DC., were evaluated for anti-emetic activity. Emesis was induced by the oral administration of copper sulphate 50mg/kg body weight to male chicks of four days age. The anti-emetic activity was determined by calculating the mean decrease in number of retching in contrast with those of control. All extracts (150 mg / kg body weight orally) showed anti-emetic activity when compared with standard drug Chlorpromazine at the same dose. Among all the extracts, Prosopis juliflora showed the highest (73.64%) and Adenanthera pavonina showed the lowest (50.17%) anti-emetic activity

Dr. Salman Ahmed

The roles of stethoscopes and sphygmomanometers in hospital-acquired infections: a case study of some district hospitals in enugu state, southeast nigeria

Background: Hospital acquired infections (HAIs) are infections that patients acquire while receiving treatments for other conditions. Studies have shown that stethoscopes and sphygmomanometers can act as potential sources of these infections in patients accessing treatment in healthcare facilities. This study aimed to increase awareness among health workers in Nigeria of the potentials of stethoscopes and sphygmomanometers to transmit HAIs. Methods: Moist swab sticks were used to collect samples from 38 randomly selected stethoscopes and sphygmomanometers from some departments of four district hospitals. Collected samples were cultured using standard microbiological techniques. In addition, self-designed questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and practice of doctors and nurses on the roles of stethoscopes and sphygmomanometers in HAIs. Results: About 83.8% of the health workers demonstrated some awareness of the roles of stethoscopes and sphygmomanometers in HAIs. 42.5% cleaned their stethoscopes, while 5% their sphygmomanometers. Staphylococcus aureus, (65.9% of stethoscopes), proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (67.6% of sphygmomanometers), Streptococcus and Coliform species were isolated. There was no significant difference between the contamination of stethoscopes and sphygmomanometers by the isolates, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (t=3.49, p=0.04). Conclusions: Awareness did not match practice in cleaning the stethoscopes and sphygmomanometers in the four facilities. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the two most common organisms isolated with a significant difference (t=3.49, p=0.04) between stethoscopes and sphygmomanometers in isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To curb HAIs, health workers need to improve on their practice of cleaning stethoscopes and sphygmomanometers.

Emmanuel Umegbolu

Rapid diagnostic test versus microscopy in the diagnosis of acute malaria in a district hospital in enugu state, southeast nigeria

Background: Malaria is a systemic disease caused by various species of Plasmodium, transmitted through the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. According to the World Health Organisation, there were 214 million cases of malaria worldwide in 2015. Nigeria’s burden of malaria is about 51million cases and 207,000 deaths annually, accounting for 60% of outpatient visits to hospitals, 11% of maternal mortality, and 30% of child mortality. The study aimed to compare RDT and microscopy in malaria diagnosis in a District Hospital in Enugu state, Southeast Nigeria. Methods: Blood samples of 300 suspected cases of acute malaria were tested for malaria parasite using RDT and microscopy simultaneously. Results: In 2017, the study found a malaria prevalence of 25% (46.2% in children, and 18.1% in adults) in Awgu. RDT was positive in 38% and microscopy in 70.3% of cases. Both RDT and microscopy were positive in 36.3%, negative in 28.3%, and discordant in 35.4%. Sensitivity of RDT was 50.7% (89.4% in children, and 25.6% in adults). RDT had a specificity of 100% (both children and adults), positive predictive value of 1 (both children and adults), and negative predictive value of 0.6 (0.5 in children, 0.6 in adults). Conclusions: RDT (SD Malaria Ag P. f) had more sensitivity in children (89.4%) than adults (25.6%), and the occurrence of false negative results was more in adults (46.8%) than children (9.5%). All negative RDT results need to be examined microscopically, to rule out false negative cases.

Emmanuel Umegbolu